Disenchantment and Dispassion

All Our Practice Efforts, Directed to the Cessation of the Taints


所有修行努力,导向诸漏尽

Nibbidā (disenchantment) and virāga (dispassion)

出离、离欲

Nibbidā (disenchantment) and virāga (dispassion) are the two proximate causes of liberation (vimutta). All our efforts of practice shall be directed to them in order to pursue liberation from samsāra. We pursue such liberation following the historic Buddha Gautama and many others’ footsteps. After liberation we may be able to help people in this samsāra world in certain ways.

Nibbidā is the realization and a sense that we do not belong with this samsāra world. Whenever we look around, we see sex and violence, or lust and ill will, pervade this world. They are the taste of the world and like gravity that holds us toward this samsāra world.  Because we have been in the cycle of death and rebirth for so long, we get addicted to and are unaware (ignorance) of them.

Virāga is to stay away from cravings (rāga, taṇhā) and its negative opposite, ill will. With right mindfulness training, we can watch such kind of our thought and emotion rise and fall without attaching to them.

“Bhikkhus, (1) for a virtuous person, for one whose behavior is virtuous, (2) non-regret (avippaṭisāre 无悔) possesses its proximate cause. When there is non-regret, for one possessing non-regret, (3) joy (pāmojja 高兴) possesses its proximate cause. When there is joy, for one possessing joy, (4) rapture (pīti 喜) possesses its proximate cause. When there is rapture, for one possessing rapture, (5) tranquility (passaddhi 轻安) possesses its proximate cause. When there is tranquility, for one possessing tranquility, (6) pleasure (sukha 乐) possesses its proximate cause. When there is pleasure, for one possessing pleasure, (7) right concentration (sammāsamādhi 正定) possesses its proximate cause. When there is right concentration, for one possessing right concentration, (8) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (yathābhūtañāṇadassana 如实知见) possesses its proximate cause. When there is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one possessing the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (9) disenchantment (nibbidā 出离) possesses its proximate cause. When there is disenchantment, for one possessing disenchantment, (10) dispassion (virāga 离欲) possesses its proximate cause. When there is dispassion, for one possessing dispassion, (11) the knowledge and vision of liberation(vimuttiñāṇadassana 解脱知见) possesses its proximate cause. (AN 11:3 (3) Proximate Cause (1))

什么是‘喜’呢?凡是喜、高兴、喜悦、极悦、欢乐、极欢乐、幸福、洋洋得意、心满意足,称为‘喜’。此中,什么是乐呢?凡是心的快乐、心的乐、心触生乐、领受乐、心触生诸乐、乐受,称为‘乐’。这乐和喜俱行、俱生、结合、联结,称为‘喜乐’。)。四种乐:一、出离乐 (nekkhammasukha)。二、远离乐(pavivekasukha闲静乐)。三、寂静乐(upasamasukha)。四、正菩提乐(sambodhasukha正觉乐)。M.A.66.CS:p.3.119-20一、出离乐:出离、离欲之乐。二、远离乐:闭关独居之乐。三、寂静乐:止息之乐。四、正菩提乐:正觉悟之乐。

“Bhikkhus, (1) for a virtuous person (sīla 持戒), for one whose behavior is virtuous, (2) right concentration(Sammā-Samadhi 正定) possesses its proximate cause. When there is right concentration, for one possessing right concentration, (3) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (yathābhūtañāṇadassana 如实知见) possesses its proximate cause. When there is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one possessing the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (4) disenchantment(nibbidā 出离) and dispassion (virāga 离欲) possess their proximate cause. When there is disenchantment and dispassion, for one possessing disenchantment and dispassion, (5) the knowledge and vision of liberation (vimuttiñāṇadassana 解脱智见) possesses its proximate cause.” (AN 5:24)