Four Developments of Samādhi

All Our Practice Efforts, Directed to the Cessation of the Taints


所有修行努力,导向诸漏尽

Samādhi Bhāvanā

修行次第

“Bhikkhus, there are these four developments of samādhi (Samādhi Bhāvanā). What four? (1) There is a development of samādhi that leads to dwelling happily in this very life. (2) There is a development of samādhi that leads to obtaining knowledge and vision. (3) There is a development of samādhi that leads to mindfulness and wise discernment. (4) There is a development of samādhi that leads to the destruction of the taints.

(1) “And what, bhikkhus, is the development of samādhi that leads to dwelling happily in this very life? Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which consists of rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. With the subsiding of thought and examination, he enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of rapture and pleasure born of concentration, without thought and examination. With the fading away as well of rapture, he dwells equanimous and, mindful and clearly comprehending, he experiences pleasure with the body; he enters and dwells in the third jhāna of which the noble ones declare: ‘He is equanimous, mindful, one who dwells happily.’ With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, he enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness by equanimity. This is called the development of samādhi that leads to dwelling happily in this very life.
(2) “And what is the development of samādhi that leads to obtaining knowledge and vision? Here, a bhikkhu attends to the perception of light; he focuses on the perception of day thus: ‘As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day.’ Thus, with a mind that is open and uncovered, he develops a mind imbued with luminosity. This is the development of samādhi that leads to obtaining knowledge and vision.
(3) “And what is the development of samādhi that leads to mindfulness and wise discernment? Here, a bhikkhu knows feelings as they arise, as they remain present, as they disappear; he knows perceptions as they arise, as they remain present, as they disappear; he knows thoughts as they arise, as they remain present, as they disappear. This is the development of samādhi that leads to mindfulness and wise discernment.
(4) “And what is the development of samādhi that leads to the destruction of the taints? Here, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating arising and vanishing in the five aggregates subject to clinging: ‘Such is form, such its origin, such is passing away; such is feeling … such is perception … such are volitional activities … such is consciousness, such its origin, such is passing away.’ This is the development of samādhi that leads to the destruction of the taints.
“These are the four developments of samādhi. And it was with reference to this that I said in the Pārāyana, in ‘The Questions of Puṇṇaka’: Having comprehended the world’s highs and lows, he is not perturbed by anything in the world. Peaceful, fumeless, untroubled, wishless, he has, I say, crossed over birth and old age.”[AN 4 V. ROHITASSA 41 Samādhi bhāvanā suttaṃ (Development of Samādhi Sutta)]