Liberation Paths

All Our Practice Efforts, Directed to the Cessation of the Taints


所有修行努力,导向诸漏尽

Cetto-Vimutti and Pañña-Vimutti

心解脱 慧解脱

“A citta defiled by lust is not liberated, and Pañña(wisdom) defiled by ignorance is not developed. Thus, bhikkhus, through the fading away of lust there is Cetto-Vimutti (liberation of citta), and through the fading away of ignorance there is Pañña-Vimutti (liberation by wisdom.)”[AN 2:31 (11)]

“Friends, whatever bhikkhu or bhikkhunī has declared the attainment of arahantship in my presence has done so by these four paths or by a certain one among them. What four?
(1) “Here, a bhikkhu develops Pañña preceded by Samadhi. As he is developing Pañña preceded by Samadhi, the path is generated. He pursues this path, develops it, and cultivates it. As he is pursuing, developing, and cultivating this path, the fetters are abandoned and the underlying tendencies are uprooted.
(2) “Again, a bhikkhu develops Samadhi preceded by Pañña. As he is developing Samadhi preceded by Pañña, the path is generated. He pursues this path, develops it, and cultivates it. As he is pursuing, developing, and cultivating this path, the fetters are abandoned and the underlying tendencies are uprooted.
(3) “Again, a bhikkhu develops Samadhi and Pañña in conjunction. As he is developing Samadhi and Pañña in conjunction, the path is generated. He pursues this path, develops it, and cultivates it. As he is pursuing, developing, and cultivating this path, the fetters are abandoned and the underlying tendencies are uprooted.
(4) “Again, a bhikkhu’s mind is seized by restlessness about the Dhamma. But there comes an occasion when his mind becomes internally steady, composed, unified, and concentrated. Then the path is generated in him. He pursues this path, develops it, and cultivates it. As he is pursuing, developing, and cultivating this path, the fetters are abandoned and the underlying tendencies are uprooted.
“Whatever bhikkhu or bhikkhunī, friends, has declared the attainment of arahantship in my presence has done so by these four paths or by a certain one among them.” (AN 4:170 (10) In Conjunction)

“Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. What four? (1) Here, bhikkhus, some person gains internal Samadhi of mind but not the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena. [94] (2) Some other person gains the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena but not internal Samadhi of mind. (3) Still another gains neither internal Samadhi of mind nor the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena. (4) And still another gains both internal Samadhi of mind and the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena.

(1) “Bhikkhus, the person among these who gains internal Samadhi of mind but not the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena should approach one who gains the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena and inquire of him: ‘How, friend, should conditioned phenomena be seen? How should conditioned phenomena be explored? How should conditioned phenomena be discerned by Panna?’ The other then answers him as he has seen and understood the matter thus: ‘Conditioned phenomena should be seen in such a way, explored in such a way, discerned by Panna in such a way.’788 Then, some time later, he gains both internal Samadhi of mind and the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena.

(2) “The person who gains the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena but not internal Samadhi of mind should approach one who gains internal Samadhi of mind and inquire of him: ‘How, friend, should the mind be steadied? How should the mind be composed? How should the mind be unified? How should the mind be concentrated?’ The other then answers him as he has seen and understood the matter thus: ‘The mind should be steadied in such a way, composed in such a way, unified in such a way, concentrated in such a way.’789 Then, some time later, he gains both the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena and internal Samadhi of mind.

(3) “The person who gains neither internal Samadhi of mind nor the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena should approach one who gains both and inquire of him: ‘How, friend, should the mind be steadied? How should the mind be composed? How should the mind be unified? How should the mind be concentrated? How should conditioned phenomena be seen? How should conditioned phenomena be explored? How should conditioned phenomena be discerned by Panna?’ The other then answers him as he has seen and understood the matter thus: ‘The mind should be steadied in such a way, composed in such a way, unified in such a way, concentrated in such a way. Conditioned phenomena should be seen in such a way, explored in such a way, discerned by Panna in such a way.’ Then, some time later, [95] he gains both internal Samadhi of mind and the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena.

(4) “The person who gains both internal Samadhi of mind and the higher wisdom of Panna into phenomena should base himself on those same wholesome qualities and make a further effort for the destruction of the taints.

“These, bhikkhus, are the four kinds of persons found existing in the world.” (AN 4:94 (4) Concentration (3) )